Short after losing the colonies England tries to reform under the leadership of Prime minister William Pitt. During this era England joins the rest of Europe in its quest of returning to the classics. The Industrial revolution makes it possible for new building techniques, it also enable the upper middle class to adopt new fashions and architectural styles. Robert Adam and Sir William Chambers are the leading Neoclassical designers in England. Thomas Chippendale styles influence the quality and elegance of furniture. Interiors have delicate colors, and classical ornamentation. Interior and exteriors are simple geometrical shapes, style was elegant and simple like in the classical period. Young men continue to tour Europe studying architecture of Greco-Roman and Egyptian style.
Ceiling from Adelphi
Model of interior in Ostery park
late Georgian mohogany
interior late Georgian
The neo classical period is literally a return to the classics.With the discovery of cities like Pompeii student became interested with the Greco-Roman classics. The Neo-classical style started from direct observation of the classical era. But unlike the designers of the Renaissance and Baroque era they didn’t inherit their style, instead they used techniques of the classical style to solve design problem. The neoclassical movement began in Rome, but quickly spread through and the Americas.
Rosehill Manor, Maryland
St. Genevieve, Paris
Thomas Jefferson Monticello
Early Neo-Clasical chairs
Neo-Classical bedroom interior
The Georgian style was introduced to America through pattern books. The Georgian style spread quickly through the colonies. Upper class colonist felt in love with this style which focuses on symmetry and order. However, lowered class architecture was also influenced by the Georgian style. American Georgian architecture has several characteristic that make it easy to identify for example; Rectangular in shape, Door centered in the middle, Two chimneys on each side, Five windows in the front,and a Medium stepped gable or hip roof.
vassall craigie longfellow house
Derby House, Salem Mass., 1761
The Thomas Nelson House
reat Hall of Van Rensselaer Manor House, Albany, New York, 1765–69
Room from the Hart House, 1680
The Georgian period refers to the time period in which the “Georges” ( George I- IV) were in power. During this era architects main interest was to return to the classics. The first half of the period is known as Neo-Palladian. This era used the architectural style of Andrea Palladio hence the name neo-Palladian an Italian architect of the Renaissance time, Palladio developed his style from the Vitruvius four books of architecture which was a “description of practical system of design and proportion”. Neo-Palladian and Georgian architecture is classical architecture with a modern twist, the best examples of the Georgian style is the red brick house, with cornices of white stone and white-painted woodwork are the key elements of the Georgian style. New forms of public buildings emerge during this time such as banks, civic and government buildings.
Queensberry House by Giacomo Leoni
Queensberry House floor plan
Old Admiralty-Whitehall, London
The Bank of England, by Sir John Soane
Somerset House Strand
George II Mohagany library bookcase
George II Dolphin table
Private home became the center of the new style called Rococo derived from french word rocaille ( pebble) refers to the small stones and shells used to decorate grotto interiors. Shells were the principal motif of Rococo art. Rococ is primarily a style of interior design. The best example of rococo interior design is found in germany in the Amalienburg Nymphenburg palace. The Rococo era gave birth to famous painters such as Antoine Watteau.
Hall of mirrors
Winter palace, Russia
Arch bishop Palace , Czech RepublicCadiz Cathedral
Pilgramige to Cythera
- Rococo motif, Vienna
Wieskirche, pilgrimage church
German Rococo interior
Original Louis XV bed
Rococo furniture collage
The European Baroque being in Rome it was meant o be a celebration of the catholic church victory again the protestant. The catholic church was trying to attract new and bring back old followers by introducing this new dramatic style. Baroque architecture is interested in combining function and universality. Probably the most well-known and influential sculptor of this era is Gianlorenzo Bernini. Creating beautiful work of art like the Ecstasy of Saint Teressa.
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
Chateau de maison lafitteMarble court , Versailles
Room of the Bull's eye
Interior of chapel, Versailles
Chapelle La chute des anges rebelles
Apollo Fountain, Versailles
Girl with the Pearl Earing