English Renaissance

The English Renaissance is very different from the french and Italian Renaissance. The Renaissance in England began much later than they did in Italy. In England the renaissance was more focus and literary movement than architecture and arts. During the Renaissance in England which began in the middle of the 16th century the Elizabethan and Jacobean style were very popular it incorporated a classical look while still retaining a medieval form. It is thanks to Inigo Jones that they moved more toward a pure classical style.
Wollaton hall


Cap Theater

Burghley house

Amoire cabinet

English Renaissance bed





French Renaissance

Unlike the Italian the french did not completely reject the Gothic movement, they created a style of their own. The Renaissance in France were highly affected by the monarchial authority that had being rapidly increasing in power. Artist like Calude Lorrain bring to live the arts in france creating masterpieces such as the Landscape with caste and peasants. The Louis however are the more influential in french architecture and arts . The splendors of Versailles such as the hall of mirrors designed by Jules Hardouin- Mansart for Louis XIV. This hall over looks the park from the second floor and stretches thru most of the central block.  Hundreds of mirrors set into the wall opposite of the windows illuminate and extend the hall.



Chateau de Chambord


French Renaissance trunk

French Renaissance furniture



louis chairs



Italian Renaissance

During the Italian Renaissance there was a return to the classics . The used of the classical order is revive but with a few new trick up there sleeves the renaissance gives birth to wonderful work of arts such as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vatican city. One of the biggest churches ever built this beautiful church takes up 5.7 acres and has a capacity of 60,000 people. Probably the most remarkable part of this basilica is the dome. The dome was designed by Michelangelo who then became the chief architect in 1546 by the time of his death in 1564 he had completed as far as the drum . The dome which is built out of brick has a diameter of 138.8 ft and rises 395 ft. One of the greatest sculptors of the renaissance would have to Bernini creating wonderful work of arts such as David, and the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Although Bernini was an architect he is far more well known for his sculptures.


Trevi Fountain in Rome,Italy

Palladio Tempietto

Architecture Italian Rennaisance

Furniture thru the ages

Book case Italian

Desk Italian


The Byzantine movement began in Constantinople the new Rome located in the greek city Byzantium . During the Bezantine era christianity spread quickly. Christianity  became established as the official state  religion in 391 C.E. a ban again pagan worship was set in place . The Justinian empire marks the beginning of this era. Justinian is responsible for the construction and reconstruction of over 30 churches in Constantinopole . Monument constructed by Justinian such Hagia Sophia defined Byzantine architecture forever.

Hagia Sophia floor plan

Santa Contanza's tomb


Floor plan of Santa Constanza's Tomb

Byzantine furniture

Byzantine chair

modern desk Byzantine

Early Christian

Early Christian is the beginning of known Christian subjects. Most Early Christian art is located in Rome it’s found in the catatombs; (Latin word for in the hollow)  a vast subterranean networks of passageways and chambers designed as cemeteries for burying the Christian dead.  Similar to the Etruscan tombs but not as elaborate the galleries run 60 to 90 miles an unbelievable sum of four million body are buried in this galleries. Christianity was spread into the massive empire that its today that thanks to Constatine. He believed that the Christian god had leaded him to victory, and so began his lifelong journey for spreading and maintaining Christianity alive. Constatine wanted to provide buildings to house Christian rituals, however he did not want to destroy the traditional Roman architecture instead he chose to renovate and add Christian motif to the old Roman buildings. He became a patron for the Christian church building numerous basilica, memorials, and mausoleums: name derived from fourth-century B.C.E. tomb of Mausolos at Halikarnossos which is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The greatest church Constatine build is the Old Saint Peter’s which stands in the spot where he believed that Peter the first apostle had being buried. He is also responsible for building many more architecture such as Santa Constanza, the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, and Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo.

Floor plan of Santa Constanza's TombIlluminated Manuscript of the blessing of Epharaim


Santa Contanza's tomb


Now I will be moving on to the Gothic period my favorite architectural era. The architectural beauty of the Gothic period is like no other. The obsession with building cathedrals continued on from the Romanesque period. I personally have being move by Gothic architecture. The exquisiteness and uniqueness of the cathedrals in the Gothic era is truly amazing, the furniture follows the dramatic beauty of the architecture. Dark and heavy filled with crosses and religious work of arts the Gothic era is one of diversify brilliance.  During this time period the power of the Catholic Church is a great influence. I have fallen in love with the Gothic era; Gargoyle, pointed arches, large beautiful windows, mystical lights, crosses, and religious symbols ornate Gothic work of arts. Every architecture and piece of furniture in this period is an elaborate piece of art.  Gothic furniture which includes; beds, chest, tables, and chairs also have pointed arches which gives a sense of unity between architecture and furniture.


Gothic Revival downtown Nashville, TN

Salibury Interior


Interior of Chartres

GargoyleNotre-dame, Paris

Picture taken by author... Gothic revival downtown Nashville, TN

Fan Vault from Henry VII's chapel

Gothic library table @ Metropolitan museum of art Modern Gothic style table

Gothic amour

Gothic chest

Gothic desk

Gothic Bed

modern Gothic-Bedroom

Picture taken by author.... a more personal approach te research!


The Romanesque era gets its name from art historian to describe medieval art and architecture that had a Roman style.  The Romanesque period gave birth to elaborated expensive architecture and art. Just like in the year the 2000 we feared Y.2.k. and the end of the world in the new millennium, that fear of the world ending in the year 1000 lead to this era. Might had being the enormous gratitude for being alive that lead to a great obsession with the construction of churches. One of the most impressive architectural structure of the Romanesque period is the Cathedral Complex at Pisa Italy. Though it is hard to choose between so many truly remarkable cathedrals built during the Romanesque era I would have to say that the Saint-Sernin cathedral would have to be one of my favorite pieces of Romanesque architecture. This perfectly geometric piece of architecture is as marvelous outside as it inside. The interior groin-vaults (intersection of a series of arches) are ideal for enhancing the acoustics of the Christian music performed at this cathedral.

West façade of Reims cathedral

West facade of Saint-Etiene

Cathedral Complex


Interior Saint-Sernin

Romanesque Throne Chair

Modern adaptation of the style of Romanesque throne chair

Romanesque Ivory casket

modern casket